Geographic system informational (GIS). Gis is system for the creation and the administration of steric date and the attributes atasate. That is he is system computerized able his upright, to store, to edit, to analyse and to display geographic informations. In the generic sense GIS is a chart inteligenta' an wagons permits his users create the charts parttiale as per of a criterion of search, to analyse the steric information his si edit yes proper. The technology GIS can be used-up for scientific investigations, the administration of the funds, the good administration, planning, cartography and the planning routes. For instance GIS burn can permit planificatorilor his rescues calculate else easy for step in the case natural disasters. GIS burn can be used-up for the protection of affected zones of pollution. Historian: Now 35000, on the walls pesterilor, the man of drew the animals on which le lode. Associate the animals pictate, I am calm the si detaliicare describe the routes of these transmigration ancient drawings contain structure duala modern Gis-ului: A graphic drawing( the chart) with date atrubuite. Arid in. XVIII were implementate technically for the lift topographic charts. In the beginning I drain XX, a date with the development of the sights foto the charts were separate in thematic layers. The development hard accelerated computers of the research in the area of nuclear weapons led to computerizarea harilor of general interests opening with first years have the years '60. In 1967 he developed the firstling ssistem GIS operationally in Ottawa, Ontario created of to Departamentului Federal of Energie, Minelor and Resurselor. Bared of Roger named Tomlinson Canadian GIS'( CGIS) were used-up his he stores, to analyse and to handle yes colectate of Inventarierea Teritoriului Canadian( CLI) a society of which his initiative contains the territory Canada with charts informationale containing zones lived, gived about soil, agriculture, grounds of recreere, wild grounds, watery courses, forests, using the scale 1: 250000. They added and criterii of classification permited thematic analyses. Were first system of charts computerizate from world were inbunatatire against the classic charts wherethrough he assures the possibility of suparapunere diverselor layere, measurements, digitizations scanari, he is based on a systems of national coordinates, carry covers whole the continent, the lines date as the springs have the real topology the si stores the attributes and the informations of localization in separate files. His creator, the geographer Roger Tomlinson is knowed right the father Gis-ului. Were closed in 1990 constituted eldest database of the funds of the territory were. Conceived as a basic structure across which is applied substructuri of planning and federal administration the si the provincial. His part were analysed the complex sets of date to the whole level of the continent. CGIS a former never available in a commercial form. Form to and the success stimulated the launch diverselor commercial variants of softwares for charts selled of diverse such as and Intergraph. The development hard from the area stimulated the firms of softwares of mappare as the: ERSI, Mapinfo and CARIS to comprise successfully in their many applications facilitations ale Cgis-ului, combining the module of tackle of the bonus generations to the disjunction of steric attributes of one informationale with the module of tackle from the generation doua through the organization of the attributes of in a date structure of database. Breed industrial from the years 80 and 90a stimulated the in afterwards the utilization GIS on the workstations THE UNIXES and on the personal computers. On last the century XX, the quick development diverselor sistemea consolidated sio standardized relatively little platforms and the users fell to exported gived Gisprin net appearing the must standardization mature date transferate. Used-up techniques of GIS. The correlation of the informations from diverse sources. If you correlate the informations about hurried air from the country dv. With the aerial photoes ale country, can to say which grounds is dried to a certain moment from year. GIS an wagons can to utilize an informations venite from the many maul sources fit different in can be of use the such in analyses. First condition of the source of date is his is knowed locatia of the variable. Locatia can be notata in x-coordinates, y and z latitude, longitude and his altitude through another systems of geocodarecum burn be the codes ZIP or through the terminals kilometrice on highways. Anything variably which can be localizata spatialpoate be entered in a GIS. GIS can also to convert the digital informations which existences even if still siub form of the chart in which formats can be recognized and used. For instance the images from moon generate through catchment comandat„ can be analizate produced layere likewise charts containing informations about vegetable another table application for library of names GIS is Tezaurul Gettyde Nume Geografice( GTGN) I carry is a vocabularies structurat of 1. 000. 000 nume and informations about these. As and recensamantulhidrologic in the shape of gived tabular can be converted in the shape of the chart helping as layere thematically in a GIS. The representation of the date. Gived GIS represents object from the real world( roads, property of earth, altitudes) through digital date. The object from the real world can be divizate in doua kinds of abstract object: Discreet object( ocasa) and contiguous fields( drop of precipitatiisau altitudinea). Sunt doua big used-up methods stored yes in a GIS for both abstractizari: Rasteruri and vectors. Gived the guy the raster consist in in a row and coloanede cells waves each in cell is stored an alone value. Very frequently. Gived the by-path images( images the shelves) but besides simple culorivaloarea inregistrata for each cell can be a discreet value cun burn be the destination of the ground, a contiguous value, cun burn be drop pluvial, a null value but that exist yes. In while a raster. In while a cell a raster stores an alone value, this can be extensive rin the utilization bands rasters for representations RGB( green blue reds), coloured charts( mapare between cod thematically sivaloarea RGB), or a tables with atriibute expanded a rows for each value from cell. The resolution of the raster depends on the size of the cell relateing to the above-ground unit in ground. For instance a cell of image of the raster represents a meter on ground. In the usual mode cell represents an above-ground unit on ground. The guy OF GIVED THE VECTOR utilizes geometric points as the points, lines( evening of points) or polygons, or areas apelate( portions delimitate of an outlines of lines), represented object. The examples comprise areas delimitate for subdivizarecontinand abet an alike polygons of good locatii prezent‚nd points. Vect6orii can be constrained his respects the integrity spatialaprin the adhibition of topologic rules such as: The polygons have not to is overlaped. The vector the date can be used-up represented phenomena with contiguous variation. The lines of outlines and the triangular irregular meshes( HOLD) am used represented altitudinea or another which values variaza continuously. The values hold inregstrate as locatii punctually which by-pathes conectate through lines in order to fiorma a strings of irregular triangles. Suprafate the triangles represent the off-road surfaces. Am advantages and disadvantages in the utilization of his rasters of the vectors described the reality. The set of date raster registers a value for all puncteledin the covered which area can require more space of stockage for than represzentarea gived the fit in the which vector stores yes just there where must. Gived the raster permit only that an easy implementation of the operations of which overlap by-pathes the heavy maul in the case of the date of the vector. The vectors can be display as graphic used-up vectors in the traditional charts, waves date raster shall appear as which images can to aibe appearance of ingramadeala the portions delimitate. Gived additional nonspatiale can be stored besides steric date represented of the coordinates of geometric vector, or the of a position cellule the raster. In the vector date am attributes ale the object. For instance the of a inventory polygon of padurepoate to aibe a value of identificaresi informations about the cultivated species on lot. In the raster, value from cell can be the attribute informatioanal but paote also to is sidar can be used-up as the which identifier can to send to registrations another in table. The intake of the date. Consumes most time. Is a variety of methods of gave in a GIS waves are stored the fit digital in. Gived existences pe his paper on supoturi transparencies can be scanate obtained from these gived digitally. Digitizor produces vectorica an which camera-man traces points., Lines and outlines poloigonale dintr the chart. Scanarea of a charts has as the output an which rasters can be processed farther obtained vectors. Gived cadastrale can be entered directly in a GIS. Can be entered gived GPS directly in a GIS. Sensors comandati can gamble an important roles in the collection of the date and consist in sensors of a attaches platforms. The sensors can be rooms digital rooms and LIDAR( right detection and ranging), the usual platforms be his aircrafts moons. Majority of the date vin from aerial photographers. Am used-up softwares specializate in order to digitiza direct6 stereophonic photographic these couples systems permit the catchment of the date of his in 23 sizes with the mensuration the direct altitudes from the stereophonic couples through motida of the photogrammetry. The analogic aerial photoes the by-pathes scanate entered in a system softwares of duplication but when the rooms shall evolve this step don't shall else need. The sensors comandati from moons are another sources of steric date. The moons utilizeasa differed parcels of sensors in order to passive measure reflectance in the spectrum electromanetic, or the waves of which radio by-pathes sended of an active sensors as the for example the radar. The sensors comandati colecteaza date guy which raster can be procesate in afterwards so that identify object and class of interests as the vegtatia what cover the ground. When he captures yes, the user can decide if if uses relative his absolute definition, abets the how much this time shall influienta the module explicative the how much informations of the si the cost collection of the date. Besides steric date in GIS by-path entered and gived ascribable. For vectors these they comprise yes additional about the object represented the in the system. After the intake of the date of the in of the system these fault-free trebuiesc the si procesate in afterwards. For vectors date must doed correct from point vedere topologic. Were used-up for advanced analyses. For instance a meshes of drumuriliniile must conectate with nodurilew prezent‚nd the intersections. The errors of intersection am inlaturate. For the charts scanate the spots at first hand trebuiesc inlaturate from the raster the result. For instance a trace of dust connects doua which lines don't trebuiescconectate. Manipularea gived. The reorganization of the date can be doed on GIS in order to coinverti gived a different in formats. For instance GIS can be an used-up converted an image an in a moon vectorial structure through the generation of lines around celulelot with same classification, through the determination of steric relations among cells such as his adjacency the inclusion. As I am colectate gived digitally and stored the diverse in one forms doua sources of date be in full compliant. So GIS must to is able his convert yes geographic from tr structure in cealalta. Projections, coordinates and registrations. A good chart is due to show yes to different scales. The informations in a paper GIS trebuiesc manipulate just as am inregistrate. Or to I fited in with the informations from another charts. Ere gived to can be analizate they am premanipulate conversia of the projection and the which coordinates assures their in a integration GIS. The terra can be represented the different in modes, each using a systems of coordinates( latitude, longitude, altitude) for any point from siprafata of the terra. Most simple I burn be his he is estimated the terra with a sphere. As gived about cumulated earth the model of representation became all complicated still more exact maul. As a matter of fact the models satsfac the exactness for different zones ale the world( NAD North The America Datum befits The America but for The Europe don't too. The projection is a fundamental component to the of a realization charts. A projection an in a mathematical sense transfered the informations from a models of an which terra represents a tridimensional in a image two-dimensional frma for printare on his his paper is afisata on a screen. Differed projections are used for different guys of fit hartifiecare diferitelor aims. For instance an which projection represents the parts from continenteva distort the relative sizes. How long the informations dintr GIS vin from the existing charts, gis uses an adding power of the computer so that transform the digital informations contained the diverse in sources with diverse proiectiisi differed systems of in a coordinate systems of coordinates with common projection. Steric analyses with GIS. Modelarea gived. Is difficult his I correlated the charts with the humidity of the soil depending on precipitatiiinregistrate certain in points for instance to aeroporturi, stations tv, or high schools. GIS can be used-up his describes carascteristici sau tridimensionalea suparafetei of the terra, of his bowel atmosphere from informal points. For instance GIS can generate a quick a chart with which lines indicates the amount of hurried. Like the chart can be named the chart with outlines of hurried. Many sophisticated methods can estimate the features surface dintr limited number of points of measure. A chart of two-dimensional curly ontur dinmodelarea of the surface from points of asura the precipitations can be unfurled and analizata with any the chart GIS covering same zone. Modelarea topologic. Last in 35 of aniau be gas stations and which factories functionau in around the marshes? Any among these in limit doua miles and on hills against marsh? GIS can recognize and analyse a steric which relation inhere in yes steric stored. These topologic relationari permit steric complex modelari. Relationarile topologic between the entities geograficetraditionaleinclud adjacency( what is abuted on what?), Inclusions( Care what he contains?) Or proximity( at all he is some of something else. Meshes if all the factories of near an watercourses threw by accident in for the worse chemical substances same same in time, at all time shall pass until dangerous concentratia shall arrive the in phreatic cloth. GIS can simuladrumul materialelorde lungul an of a linear meshes. Informations as the: Slope, speed of speed of flow, the diameter of the pipeline can be incorporate in modelarea meshes with the aim of reprezentadesfasurarea the how much phenomenon of precise maul. Modelarea in meshes is used in the planning of the transports, hydrology and infrastructure. Modelarea cartographic. Hard technical analyses with rasters. Compunerea the vectors. The combinations doua sets of steric separate date( points, lines, polygons) created a new typical vectors the tables of attribute ale celor input vectors isi harvester-thresher the fields and the values in order to is obtained the table with attribute ale noului these vector compuneri by-path sinilare with the diagrams Venn from mathematics. Steric statistics. Utyilizand geoststisticile am predicted fields from points of observation. Analyse of a castings of points. A hold looked at the statistics steric date.. What does it an unique against another guys of statistics is the use of the theory of the graphes and dot-matrix algebra reduced the number of fell across the analysis. This needs wherethrough is as a matter of fact the property of the order two Gis-ului of caror gived must analysed. Geocodarea the computation locatiilor steric( X, Y) departing from address street. A theme of reference is the must of geocoda the individual address, such as the center of of a line of the road with the area of address. Locatiile severally ale of the address are interpolate or estimate through the examination of the field of address of lungul of the piston ring of road. These are furnizate of his table a database. Gis you place then an approximate point waves is adreza relateing to centrally the piston ring of road. For instance the point prezent‚nd address 500 on a piston ring of road with address the re 1 and 1000 shall be represented between the piston ring of road. Geocodarea can be also aplicata and actualelor typical parcelari for the municipal charts of tax. This in the case the result geocodariiva be a steric current of a position point interolat. Must keeped as I am several protests( dangerous potentials) when is appealed to geocodare. Am else many used-up modes for adjustement of the address when they are differences. The information about address for an entity namely or an organisation disposes of yes, as the post-office, can to he don't corresponds exact with theme of reference. Can be diverse writings ale of a aceluiasi number of the street, or name of community, etc. In therefore the user at large in does the criterion of adjustements of name the restrictive his his coward maul the unbendable maul the criterion of the address so else many address shall be figurative on the chart. Must haved care seen again the results so that to don't appear wrong address by reason of the excess of adjusted the parameters. Geocodarea invert. Is the inverse process that is given the coordinates and is shall addressed stradala. Exemplu utilizatir clicaie on the of a center the piston ring of road( giving thus the coordinates) and he has the information with the number estimated of the house. This count is interpolated dintr proper range of the piston ring of selected road. If clicaie on the middle of the piston ring of road with numbers contained between 1 the si 100 shall have as the output the homemade number 50. Keep as geocodarea invert don't to a nicety actual key, but estimate it eh I burn can be there dintr doneniu of numerepredeterminat. Falled across sortie and cartography. The cartography is the projection and the production of his charts the visual gave steric. Big majority of modern cartography is doed with help of usual computer using GIS. Many softwaew of GIS give utilizatirului check substantioal about the appearance of the date. The cartographic activity consist in doua major functions: Forerank in she produces the on-screen his chart on which paper transfers the results analizeicatre the which peoples do incident to decisions funds. Charts of wall and another drawings can be generate, permiting celui what looks to see and to inteleaga result of his analyses of the simulations eventualelor events. The charts from the servers web lightens the distribution charts generate through the technology web. Second in secondarily another databases of informations can be generate for the many maul his analyses aims. For example a list with all the address on ray of a mile against the place of spill-over of a toxic substances. Techniques of graphic display. The traditional charts the by-pathes abstract representations ale of real world, a sampling of important an elements portretizata on a piece of a paper with simboluricare represents the physical object. He who use the charts interprets these charactery. The topographic charts show the off-road forms the si suprfetele of ground with lines of outlines; Form real off-road he can be seed just with ochioul mind. Today the techniques of graphic display such as the shades bazate 30 m. Show altitudinile seas with white the one low si with black. The image thematic charts from moon atasate aete a false image aimaginii rosii privita from above to same zone in pixeli prezent‚nd 30 m, or elements desenate for same points of coordination. Pixel with pixel as the information altitudinal. Were used-up his registered and to one harvester-threshers doua images so that renders the top sight prospective tridimensional in of the fissure San Andreea, utilizing pixelii thematic paper shaded gift on the strength of the information altitudinal from the forms of reliefs. Gis displaied depends on the point from which looks onlooker hour from day whereat is done the visualization, rendered accordingly the shades create of sun to that latitude, longitude and the moment from day. Softwares GIS. Future Gis-ului. Many discipline can benefit of the techniques GIS. A market activate GIS has as the result prÍt reduced and inbunatatiri continue the in the software and hardul these GIS developments are shall reflected the in the utilization on the all scale the large maul of the technology of the in science, governmental applications, business and industry with applications comprising buildings, public health, protect national, investments, natural funds, transports and standard logistics OGC( Open Geospatial Consortium)( Open GIS Consortium. The consortium geospatial opened( OGC) Consortiul GIS Deschis, is much of a an international industrial consortium of 257 companionships, governmental agents the si universities participante to process an in an agreement developed specifications geoprocesate accessible the audience. Open interfaces the si protocols